Students have the capacity to self-evaluate or make judgments about their learning process and products of learning, using criteria that they have agreed on with their teacher via the process of self-assessment. More study is needed to determine what characteristics facilitate or impede self-assessment. To this end, the present research intended to gauge the impacts of critical thinking, self-efficacy, and academic resilience on self-assessment and immunity in Saudi Arabian EFL settings. To achieve this, 423 EFL students filled out the Core of Self-assessment Questionnaire (CSAQ), the Language Student Immunity Instrument (LSIS), Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form (WGCTA), the Self-efficacy Scale (SES), and the Academic resilience (AR) to reflect on their own experiences with self-assessment, critical thinking, self-efficacy, and academic resilience. The outcomes of this study show that the level of critical thinking, immunity, self-efficacy, and academic resilience among EFL students is directly related to how well they do on their online assessments. The results demonstrated that those EFL students who maintained a healthy state of critical thinking, self-efficacy, and academic resilience felt more immune and did better in their online assessments. Further comprehensive feedback is provided about the pedagogical implications of this study.
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