Teaching second language (L2) vocabulary plays an important role in EFL and ESL contexts. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of mobile-assisted versus paper-and-pencil concept mapping on EFL learners' vocabulary learning. To fulfill this objective, 90 Iranian EFL intermediate students were assigned into two experimental and one control groups, each involving 30 learners. the learners in one experimental condition were asked to draw concept maps a number of highlighted words in a text using mind mapping application after discussing the texts. The learners in the second experimental condition were asked to draw concept maps of the same highlighted words through paper-and-pencil. Both experimental conditions received assistance on how to draw concept maps. The participants of the control group provided with the same highlighted words without the opportunity for drawing concept maps. Vocabulary pretest, post-test, and delayed post-test were administered to examine students' vocabulary improvement as a result of the treatment sessions. The findings of the study revealed that both mobile-assisted and paper-and-pencil concept mapping were effective for EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition meanwhile the mobile-assisted concept mapping condition proved more effective than the paper-and-pencil concept mapping for L2 vocabulary learning.
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