A number of studies have explored the efficacy of peer-dynamic assessment (peer-DA) in enhancing achievement in second language (L2) learning. However, none have specifically examined whether peer-DA can contribute to improving the listening comprehension (LC) of EFL learners and decreasing their learning anxiety (LA) in online learning environments. In light of this gap, the current study investigated the impact of online peer-DA on the LC and LA of intermediate EFL learners in Iran. The research employed a convenience sampling method to select 85 participants who were homogenized based on their Key English test (KET) scores. Those with scores near the mean were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 26) or the experimental group (n = 28). The participants underwent pre-tests, interventions, post-tests, and delayed post-tests, and the data were analyzed using a one-way ANCOVA. The findings disclosed that the experimental group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in their LC scores compared to the control group in both the post-test and delayed post-test. Moreover, the experimental group reported experiencing less anxiety than the control group in the post-test and delayed post-test. This study has implications for stakeholders in the field of EFL education.
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