Learner Autonomy and Autonomy Support on Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT): A Mixed-Method Study of EFL University Students in Indonesia


learner autonomy, autonomy support, EFL university students, ERT


The capacity to be autonomous is not innate but can be developed by a systematic formal and supportive learning environment. Thus, appropriate autonomy support mediates learners' self-regulation, initiation, and responsibility for the task. However, investigating EFL university students' learner autonomy and autonomy support by the faculties when undertaking the emergency remote teaching (ERT) system is still infrequent. To fill the void, guided by the explanatory sequential of a mixed method design, 151 participants from a private university in Jakarta, Indonesia, voluntarily filled out two questionnaires, wrote a reflective journal, and took an in-depth interview in a two-phase data collection. The findings reveal that learner autonomy and autonomy support correlate positively and significantly, which the low and high levels of autonomy support significantly impact learner autonomy. Further, the concepts of learner autonomy are oriented in various: learning, affection, capacity, and cognitively oriented. Subsequently, the students generated learner autonomy in several dimensions: cognitive, metacognitive, social-interpersonal, technical, and technological aspects. Additionally, this study found that during ERT, the students stated low and high levels of autonomy support, and the support came from intrinsic support motivation, internalization, personal understanding tone, and student-focused attitude, in which the opportunity to decide as the most frequent support and provide the options and online learning resources are as the least frequent supports.


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