Assessing Online TBLT Practices using RAIS Frameworks: In-service EFL Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives


pedagogical authenticity
situational authenticity
RAIS frameworks
online TBLT practices


Pedagogical and situational authenticity have become central issues in task-based language teaching (TBLT) research. This study explores English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ and students’ perceptions regarding the fulfillment of situational authenticity using relatedness, authentic, ill-structured, and solvable (RAIS) frameworks and examines how they implement these four frameworks in their online TBLT practices. Within a mixed methods design, a questionnaire was administered to 90 EFL teachers (39 male and 51 female) and 180 students (82 male and 98 female) from nine provinces in Indonesia to examine the fulfillment of the RAIS framework in teachers’ online TBLT practices. A qualitative interview was then conducted with 18 teachers and 36 students to draw on their practices and challenges in applying the frameworks in online TBLT practice. The quantitative data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test to explain the fulfillment level of the frameworks in teachers’ online TBLT and the significant difference in perception between the two groups of participants. Thematic analysis was applied to draw on their practices and challenges in implementing the frameworks in online TBLT. The findings indicate low to high fulfillment of some RAIS frameworks in teachers’ online TBLT practices. There was no significant difference in perception between the two groups’ participants, except in implementing situational authenticity and assessment frameworks. Situational authenticity was minimally applied because of teachers’ lack of understanding and limited awareness of the model of the framework. Another challenge was the focus of teachers’ assessment, which overlooked the collaborative process during online TBLT activities.


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